The article describes the development of a GIS-based decision support system for evaluating the impact of floods resulting from dam and levee break/breaching based on a two-dimensional shock capturing unsteady conservative finite-volume model that uses a Digital Elevation Model directly as a computational grid. This GIS-based decision support system directly reads simulation results and allows the user to interface these results with spatial socio-economic data to determine the probability of loss-of-life and urban and agricultural flood damage.
The paper states that there is an urgent need for the development of flood simulation models that can be linked with GIS-based decision support tools for evaluating the impact of various failure scenarios and preparing the appropriate emergency management plans.
Bastawesy, Mohamed A., Fikry I. Khalaf, and Sayed M. Arafat. 2008. The use of remote sensing and GIS for the estimation of water loss from Tushka lakes, southwestern desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences 52, no. 3: 73-80.
Tushka Lakes, Egypt. Source: http://www.vgt.vito.be/VEGETATION%20samples/album/other/index.html
In this article, the behavior of the hydrological regime of Tushka Lakes, which came into being by the construction of Lake Nasser (a reservoir formed by Aswan High Dam) was assessed using an integration of Remote Sensing and GIS technologies. A dual histogram threshold method was used to discriminate between the lakes and surroundings. Uncertainty was a concern as there were mixed and transitional zone pixels between land and water. Topographic maps were digitized and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated to simulate lakes bottom topography and surroundings. The DEM was of a 20 m resolution and was interpolated in ArcInfo’s Topograd’s module using digitized contours, drainage networks and spot heights layers. The DEM-simulated lakes were then directly overlaid on their counterparts from the co-incident 2002 and 2006 subimages. Finally, a GIS-based scenario was established to predict the future surface areas, configurations and storage of these lakes.
The authors discussed that the use of satellite data and GIS techniques in the prediction of temporal changes in the quantity of these water masses is an efficient tool, especially when the remote location and the extensive area coverage of these lakes are considered. There was difficulty with the GIS model matching satellite images.
Chin, Anne, Laura R. Laurencio, and Adriana E. Martinez. 2008. The hydrologic importance of small- and medium-sized dams: Examples from Texas. Professional Geographer 60, no. 2: 238-251.
Mansfield Dam, Texas. Source: http://wn.com/Mansfield_Dam,_Austin,Texas
Using Texas as an example area, this article highlighted the role of small-and medium-sized dams affecting the surface hydrology of river systems. The primary approach to accomplish this was to use a GIS to analyze the data from the National Inventory of Dams (NID). The geographic coordinates associated with dams in the NID enabled the data to be imported into ArcGIS 9.1.
Within the GIS, the database was queried for dams in Texas for four size classes. The results of these queries enabled the calculation of multiple indexes associated with reservoir storage and dam density to assess the hydrologic impacts of dams based on size.
The authors discovered that the primary difference in hydrologic effects between small- and medium-sized dams and larger ones lies in the extent of fragmentation in river landscapes.
Evans, James E., Jennifer M. Huxley, and Robert F. Vincent. 2007. Upstream channel changes following dam construction and removal using a GIS/Remote Sensing approach. JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43: 683-697.
Huron River Dam. Source: http://photo.net/photodb/photo?photo_id=9070662
This study applies a GIS/Remote Sensing (RS) approach to study changes over time in the Huron River. It specifically focuses on individual bars and channel patterns upstream of a low-head dam. The authors contended that even relatively small dams can be responsible for significant fluvial modifications upstream of the reservoir.
The authors used historical aerial photographs and created a shapefile for each of the 12 bed forms identified using ArcGIS. The polygons were drawn around each bedform at the waterline for the day the image was collected. The shapefiles were then imported into a geodatabase and converted to a feature class, which populate the attribute table of the polygon’s properties.
The authors stated that GIS and RS are tools that can be applied to study the behaviors of individual bedforms to interpret changes in important geomorphic parameters over time, specifically in reference to the size, shape and position of bars and channel sinuosity.
Gross, Eric J. and Glenn E. Moylen. 2007. Estimating the hydrological influence of Maryland state dams using GIS and the HEC-1 model. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering 12, no. 6: 690-693.
The authors performed this study using stage-storage discharge curves for 34 dams in the state of Maryland, the GISHydro 200 GIS, and the VSACE HEC-1 hydrologic modeling software package. By applying equations to the GIS database of all the dams in Maryland, they determined the effect of different values of critical Ra (one minus the fraction of the natural discharge at a specific location downstream of a dam) on the kilometers of a stream that would be considered within the influence distance of a dam.
The influence of a detention structure should diminish with downstream distance according to at least three factors: channel hydraulics, watershed drainage network structure, and detention structure characteristics.
Jessup, Eric L., Kenneth L. Casavant, and Terence C. Farrell. 2001. Selected private and public grain transportation impacts from breaching the Snake River Dams in Eastern Washington. Transportation Quarterly 55, no. 3: 109-126.
Map of the Washington Snake River Dams. Source: http://www.moldychum.com/home-old/2009/3/7/redden-has-not-ruled-out-removing-snake-river-dams.html
The article’s purpose was to identify impacts to grain transportation costs, and to demonstrate the use of an integrated GIS and Generalized Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) optimization model in the decision making process regarding the costs to grain shippers, as well as other social costs from altering the current river management policies. The model was developed in response to a proposal that called for the breaching of four dams on the Snake River. The GIS data and the GAMS models were used to derive transport costs for three scenarios, which determine model allocations and costs changes for two potential market conditions. The advantage of incorporating GIS data is that the damage to various roads and holdings can be mapped as a result of changes in policy.
Larents, Dante G., Walter Collischonn, Francisco Olivera, and Carlos E.M. Tucci. 2010. GIS-based procedures for hydropower potential spotting. Energy 35, no. 10: 4237-4243.
This paper described the sequence of procedures to identify potential hydropower sites. The sequence is based on remote sensing and regional streamflow data and was automated within a GIS-based computational program: Hydrospot. This program has allowed users to spot more potential dam sites along a drainage network than it would be possible in a study that used traditional survey methods. Hydrospot also provides different types of dam-powerhouse layouts and two types (operating modes) of projects: run-of-the-river and storage.
The paper addressed how the increasing availability of satellite imagery information and the easiness of data processing in computational-GIS environments have allowed the development of a number of methodologies for the extractions of various terrain characteristics from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), such as drainage network position, length, and slope. For the larger-scale hydropower estimation purposes, a water head may be extracted from DEMs using GIS tools in a quicker fashion, which is sufficient for preliminary dam site studies.
Le, Thi Viet Hoa, Huu Nhan Nguyen, Eric Wolanski, Thanh Cong Tran, and Shigeko Haruyama. 2007. The combined impact on the flooding in Vietnam’s Mekong River delta of local man-made structures, sea level rise, and dams upstream in the river catchment. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 71, no. 1 / 2: 110-116.
A GIS-linked numerical model described in this paper shows that the flood levels in the delta depend on the combined impacts of high river flows in the Mekong River, storm surges, sea level rise, and the likely, future situation of the Mekong Estuary resulting from the construction of dams in China as well as many other dams proposed throughout the remaining river catchment. The authors used a numerical model to predict the flood heights and duration in the Mekong River Delta caused by the combined impact of upstream flows, tides, storm surge, engineering structures, sea level rise, and estuary siltation. The model incorporates numerical modeling, GIS, and statistical analysis.
The results of the model suggest that the engineering structures increase the flow in the river and canals, thereby increasing bank erosion. The results also suggest that the damming of the Mekong River upstream of Vietnam’s Mekong River Delta will initially reduce flooding in the Delta due to decreased river flood peaks. The construction of the dams on the Mekong River upstream of Vietnam is also predicted to silt the Basaac River estuary.
Mwanukuzi, Phillip K. 2008. Using GIS for decision-making: The case of Kidunda dam in Morogoro, Tanzania. Geographic Journal 174, no. 2: 161-164.
The paper shows that GIS can be used as a decision support tool to ensure appropriate dam construction. Mwanukuzi argued that for a more equitable distribution of benefits to be gained from dam construction, decisions regarding the construction of the dam must now take into account all water users and give consideration to all factors, including economic, social, environmental and biophysical. To do this during the construction of Kidunda dam, the concerns of stakeholders in residential areas were translated onto a map. Each map was used as a criterion (basis of decision) and used as an input variable in a GIS decision support system. Mwanukuzi argued that GIS can be an important tool in affecting resource allocation decisions.
Nookaratnam, K., Y.K. Srivastava, V. Venkateswararoo, E. Amminedu and K.S.R. Murthy. 2005. Check dam positioning by prioritization of micro-watersheds using SYI Model and morphometric analysis - Remote Sensing and GIS Perspective. Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing 33, no. 1: 25-38.
The Sediment Yield Index (SYI) model and results of morphometric analysis have been used to prioritize watersheds and to locate sites for check dam positioning in the Tarafeni watershed in Mulnapur district, West Bengal. The automated demarcation of prioritization of micro-watersheds was done by using a GIS overlaying technique by assigning weight factors to all the identified features in each thematic map and ranks were assigned to the morphometric parameters.
Several scientists worked using Remote Sensing and GIS techniques and the SYI model to priorities the water sheds and to find appropriate locations for check dam construction in different areas of the entire watershed. This study looked to identify suitable sites for check dam construction based on micro-watershed prioritization by using Remote Sensing data, GIS techniques and also through morphometric studies.
Qi, Honghai, and M.S. Altinakar. 2011. A GIS-based decision support system for integrated flood management under uncertainty with two dimensional numerical simulations. Environmental Modeling and Software 26, no. 6: 817-821.
Sinclair Dam, Milledgeville, GA. Source: http://milledgevillegeorgia.blogspot.com/2009/12/sinclair-dam-on-oconee-river.html
A new decision support system has been developed for integrated flood management within the framework of ArcGIS based on two-dimensional flood simulations. This system has the ability to interact with an use classified Remote Sensing (RS) image layers and other GIS feature layers such as zoning layer, survey database and census block boundaries for flood damage calculations and loss of life estimations. Spatial representation of these flood mitigation alternatives provides a better insight into their relative effectiveness. This also helps to facilitate decision making.
Recent advancements in predictable two-dimensional flood modeling, GIS and RS technology allows for flood hazard management to be examined in a new way, as it takes into account the spatial variability of flood hazards. A case study of a dam break flood of Sinclair Dam in Milledgeville, GA, USA, is used to test the system’s capabilities. The case study helped to show that risk and uncertainty analysis based on the two-dimensional numerical simulation results, GIS and remote sensing technologies can significantly improve flood hazard assessment accuracy. The resulting raster/vector maps of the case study showing spatial distribution of loss of life and flood damage is capable of greatly enhancing the decision making process for future emergency management operations planning.
Rieker, Jeffery D., and John W. Labadie. 2006. GIS visualization and analysis of river operations impacts on endangered species habitat. Journal of Water Resources Planning and Management 132, no. 3: 153-163.
Concern has been raised over ecological impacts of river operations on endangered species and their habitat in natural and manmade (i.e., from dams) backwater areas.
This article presents a methodology that utilizes a GIS in association with a numerical hydraulic model to assess those impacts. The GIS used in this research provides geostatistical estimates of water surface elevations within the backwaters of dams during the passage of a hydrograph created by reservoir releases, and then quantifies and provides an animation of the change in habitat for many species that dwell in these areas. The tool is said to provide an effective support for river systems operators in analyzing and assessing the impacts of river operations on the habitat of endangered species and evaluating remedial measures.
Rodrigues, Armanda S., Maria A. Santos, A.D. Santos, and Fernanda Rocha. 2002. Dam-break flood emergency management system. Water Resources Management 16: 489-503.
This article presented an Internet-based system supporting flood emergency management. The goal of building the system was to provide Portuguese water authorities, dam owners and the civil protection system with sufficient tools to easily store and retrieve information on dams and the valleys downstream. This is done so these parties will be able to model a flood wave induced by a dam break, and, eventually, manage the response to those such events.
The geographic information (GI) component has two main operating modes: one to operate during the emergency, and one to operate during the prevention, preparation, and recovery stages. The GI component development involved defining and preparing the datasets, defining the GI services, and developing the website.
Sawunyamaa, T., A. Senzanjeb and A. Mhizhac. 2006. Estimation of small reservoir storage capacities in Limpopo River Basin using geographical information systems (GIS) and remotely sensed surface areas: Case of Mzingwane catchment. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C 31, no. 15/16: 935-943.
This study estimated small reservoir storage capacities in the Mzingwane catchment in Limpopo River Basin; Zimbabwe. Area and capacity for each reservoir was calculated using GIS based on field data and satellite images. The output data was then compared and a linear regression analysis was carried out to establish a power relationship between the surface area and storage capacity of these 12 small reservoirs.
The researchers used Arc View 3.2 GIS package with Spatial Analyst, plus Surface Areas and Ratios from elevation Grid extension. This was done to automate surface area calculations and to provide surface area statistics. The authors interpolated using Spline interpolator that fits a minimum curvature surface through the input points. The triangulated irregular network (TIN) model for the reservoir was calculated using derived surface area to find the volume.
Schäuble, Holger, Oswald Marinoni, and Matthias Hinderer. 2008. A GIS-based method to calculate flow accumulation by considering dams an their specific operation time. Computers and Geosciences 34, no. 6: 635-646.
This paper presented a new approach to calculate flow accumulation with GIS. This new approach allows realistic calculations of flow accumulation for any time period. All algorithms that are related to flow calculations share one common flaw: they do not give an option to consider dams and their retention capabilities that are controlled by trap-efficiency and the length of influence.
In a GIS raster dataset environment, single-flow algorithms transfer the total contents of a cell into the neighboring cell that is the deepest, while a multiple-flow-like algorithm performs a weighted transfer of the cell contents into all lower neighboring cells. The algorithm developed for this paper (D8t) offers new opportunities to analyze hydrological and sedimentological processes in large river basins.This is important as hydrological and sedimentological studies must take into account temporal influences of dams. If this is not considered, the computed discharge of sediment fluxes will be misleading.
Seker, D.Z., S. Kabdasli and B. Rudvan. 2003. Risk assessment of a dam-break using GIS technology. Water Science and Technology 48, no. 10: 89-95.
The authors explored how numerical simulations of dam-break problems could be accomplished with geographic information systems and innovation maps. One of the problems that can be predicted is the spread of a flood wave after a dam break. A compilation in digital media of the topographic, demographic and socio-economic data partitioning to the area in the upstream and production of data is to be used in GIS and classical methods as well as an evaluation of the results thus obtained again in GIS to produce risk maps.
The authors said that GIS provides an extensive approach to evaluate map characteristics that explain the spatial distribution of a study area. This is because GIS has the capability of spatially representing data on the land surface and linking additional data related to this spatial representation through tables, charts and maps. The authors concluded that GIS can be widely and successfully used in determining risk maps for dam breaks.
Zhong, Denghua, Jingru Li, Huirong Zhu, and Lingguang Song. 2004. Geographic Information System-based visual simulation methodology and its application in concrete dam construction processes. Journal of Construction Engineering and Management 130, no. 5: 742-750.
The paper presented a GIS-based visual simulation method, in which system simulation techniques are integrated with visualization techniques. It describes the origins of a GIS-based visual simulation system (GVSS). The GVSS was developed by the authors and is a simulation tool that offers powerful planning, visualizing, and querying capabilities that facilitate the detection of logic errors in simulation models. The GVSS has been proven to be helpful and useful in designing and managing concrete dams. The authors also discussed three-dimensional digital entity models and that they involve structures permanently and temporarily built in a concrete dam construction system. The GIS examined in this article facilitates a comprehensive understanding on the user’s part of the three-dimensional models and of the topological relationship between them in many ways.